Irish Film Review: Medicated Milk


Dee O’Donoghue assesses Medicated Milk. Áine Stapleton’s re-telling of the life of Lucia Joyce, daughter of celebrated Irish writer James Joyce.


As Dublin celebrated another Bloomsday on the 16th of June honouring the revered literary giant, a silenced, counter-narrative was being heard in the IFI – that of Joyce’s mysterious daughter, Lucia. Little is still known about Lucia Joyce yet her limited biography points to a controversial, untameable figure, who scholars agree was a clear muse for her father’s work. What is accepted is that Lucia, born in Trieste in 1907 and showed great promise in becoming a dance artist, had her own artistic ambitions abruptly halted in the cutting-edge world of modern dance, yet the exact circumstances remain shrouded in mystery. She was to spend 50 years of her life in a mental asylum, forgotten and erased, owing to the Joyce estate destroying or closely guarding documents, making them unavailable to scholars; any scholastic enquiry met with forthright resistance for attempting to penetrate the sovereignty of Joyce’s work.

Lucia’s biography is not an isolated one when history comes to silencing the creative, female voice – women with ‘high-spirited’ intellect – forced to live in the murky shadows of more respected, literary men (Zelda Fitzgerald was also committed to specialist clinics). While Joyce has cemented his name as one of the greatest literary figures, and his work celebrated annually and globally, Lucia has had her true legacy distorted to protect the myth of the literary hero, a literary hero whose work was hugely influenced by his creative daughter but has inherited no more than an image of a violently deranged woman who was in need of continual confinement – thanks to her own family.

Despite such sparse historic documentation, the mysterious Lucia still ignites a continued interest to unearth a more lucid portrait of her life, her true legacy and her status within the Joyce family. Michael Hastings’ 2004 West End play, ‘Calico’, navigated Lucia’s life and relationships through her mental illness. In Ireland, a 2013 RTÉ Radio documentary, ‘Lucia Joyce – Diving and Falling’ by Leanne O’Donnell, explored the extraordinary backdrop to Lucia’s confinement as the family were at the heart of literary Paris and most recently, Annabel Abbs’, ‘The Joyce Girl’, released this year, delves into circumstances in which the dancer was locked away so brutally for half a decade.

Continuing the artistic quest for answers, it was such creative, female silencing that motivated Irish dancer and filmmaker Áine Stapleton, to take up the mantle and attempt to unearth the unsolvable mystery behind the shrouded Lucia, in Medicated Milk. As with researchers before her, Stapleton was severely obstructed by the lack of recorded documents and therefore much of her film is informed by the American scholar Carol Loeb Schloss’ controversial biography ‘To Dance in the Wake’. Scholss’ biography challenged the customary madwoman figure and after studying 50 unpublished notes used by Joyce to pen ‘Finnegans Wake’, delineates how Joyce loved his creative, independent daughter and they shared a deep creative bond.

Drawing from the biography, Stapleton, whose own narrative mirrors Lucia’s and is interwoven into the film, proffers a unique interpretation of Lucia’s story, through experimental dance and music, to reclaim Lucia from the margins of literary history and give her the voice and image she has been historically denied. Also refuting the long-considered, institutionalised image of Lucia but rather, a creative genius in her own right, Stapleton, in conjunction with director José Miguel Jiménez and supported with an evocative score by Somadrone, fuses dazzling dance sequences, radiant underwater cinematography and graphic scenes of nudity and animal butchery to create a distinctive, yet unflinching interpretation on the loss, trauma and marginalization suffered by both Lucia and the director herself.

Stapleton became immersed in her Lucia mission by discovering Joyce himself three years ago, through her collaboration with the band Fathers of Western Thought, who were devising a musical interpretation of his work. Stapleton’s agenda soon shifted from Joyce’s writings to his daughter, a life publicly framed by mental illness and psychiatric care. Through Stapleton’s research, it soon became apparent that Lucia’s mental illness overshadowed her entire life, a mental illness that was concealing a fuller picture. It was this cover-up and a shared personal experience that motivated Stapleton to drive forward, to give Lucia a narrative and to give voice to the thoughts and expressions from Lucia’s own words.

Fuelled by frustration and ambition, Stapleton acquired copies of Lucia’s few, existing letters from the University of Texas, undertook trips to various locations in France and Ireland and visited the mental asylum in Northampton to shoot scenes for the film. Collectively, existing documentation and Stapleton’s own tireless research result in a brave, provocative and deeply sensual experimental piece, which pays deep tribute to the voiceless daughter of a literary genius.

While Schoss and now Stapleton’s controversial interpretations of the life of Lucia and her relationship with James Joyce are not unheard of amongst Joyce aficionados, such interpretations are rarely explored. And what becomes more compelling about Medicated Milk, is that Áine Stapleton succeeds in giving a voice to a woman from the past through a shared experience with a woman from the future, through the medium that has suppressed women for centuries, the creative arts.

Whether Medicated Milk results in an enraged or an infuriated reaction for its challenging theories and experimental expression, the film has given voice to two silenced female voices, females whose voices might otherwise have not been heard. A must-see.


Medicated Milk screened on Thursday, 16th June 2016 at the IFI as part of Irish Focus, a focus on new Irish film and filmmakers.




























Interview: Áine Stapleton, director of ‘Medicated Milk’

Áine Stapleton introduces her first feature-length film Medicated Milk, which screens on Thursday, 16th June 2016 at 18.40 at the IFI as part of the Irish Focus Bloomsday Programme.

Medicated Milk is a re-telling of the life Lucia Joyce, daughter of celebrated Irish writer James Joyce. One of the first things I learned about Lucia was her passion for modern dance. She trained in France with Raymond Duncan (brother of Isadora) and performed with a group of female dancers called Les Six de Rythme et Couleur. She created her own choreography and received critical acclaim from the Paris Times. Lucia’s career was cut short due to supposed mental illness but the details around this seem very undefined.

I trained in dance at degree level in London and now work in dance, music and film. My work generally explores autobiography, feminism, inequality and abuse, and is my means to vocalise my opinions on these issues.

Being aware of the importance of art in my own life I wanted to know how Lucia went from a seemingly active, opinionated, energetic and inspired creator, to a young woman who’s talent and means of expression was brought to a sudden halt. Not only did her career choice go unsupported by her family, but not long after it ended she was incarcerated by her brother Giorgio. She then spent the remaining 47 years of her life locked up in psychiatric hospitals.

Researching further I discovered that much of Lucia’s writings, including communication between her and her father, were destroyed by her nephew following her death in 1982. I bought her remaining writings from the University of Texas, researched at The National Archives in London, and retraced her steps in Ireland, Paris and St. Andrews Hospital in England. I quickly became frustrated with the repeated description of Lucia as a crazy young woman who had a strange infatuation with her father. The reality for me seemed that her father had too close a hold over her, and that any mental strain she experienced was brought about by trauma she suffered at the hands of her family and subsequently by the medical profession.

The main drive behind this film was to attempt to give Lucia a voice and to further understand what may have happened to her. The title is taken from one of her dream diary extracts, and the film combines imagery and text from her dreams and biography, filmed at some locations where she spent time during the 1930s. Stories from my own life and my Mother’s are intertwined with Lucia’s to help fill in what I think might be some of the blanks in her life story.

To create Medicated Milk I worked with filmmaker and my good friend José Miguel Jiménez. We travelled around Ireland to film at locations where Lucia spent time, in particular Bray Co. Wicklow. José filmed scenes with me dancing underwater and in the ballroom at the beautiful and haunting Bray Head Inn. Locals that I approached for information about Lucia, or with help for the filming process, were extremely kind and supportive, and the whole experience was very fullfilling and at many times moving.

Although it was the first project José and I worked on together the process was very fluid. We shared a similar vision for the tone of the film, its non-narrative nature, and he was completely open to the challenges that the imagery required, which varied from the cold waters of Kerry in the winter to close-up scenes of animal butchery. His style of cinematography for the film and the dreamlike states it helped to create worked well with the ephemeral narrative presented. We collaborated on the structural narrative of the film in the editing process, shared many of the directorial roles and the whole working period was a pleasure.

The film is accompanied by an electronic soundscore created by Neil O Connor of Somadrone, and is based on classical music that Lucia would have sang, played on piano or heard in the family home.

I began working on Medicated Milk in 2013 when I received some funding and a residency to create a staged dance theatre production with film elements, but quickly into the process I knew I wanted to make a film. I then received further support from Dublin City Council to extend the work to feature-length with José. The whole film was created over two and a half years part-time.

I’ll begin researching a second film this Autumn at the Pinea-Linea De Costa A.I.R residency in Spain. This will go further into my own story and that of my Mother’s, combining them with an exploration into dance and ritual as a means for healing in indigenous cultures and contemporary arts practices.

I can’t let Lucia’s story go yet so I’ll continue to look into it and it may feature again. I’m excited to present Medicated Milk at the IFI and to open up new conversations about Lucia.


Medicated Milk screens on Thursday, 16th June 2016 at 18.40  at the IFI as part of Irish Focus, a focus on new Irish film and filmmakers.

Áine Stapleton and José Miguel Jiménez will participate in a post-screening Q&A.

Tickets are available here or from the IFI Box Office or on 01 679 3477 



Bloomsday @ IFI

The IFI is to celebrate Bloomsday, Thursday, June 16th, the day depicted in James Joyce’s novel Ulysses with a screening of Shem the Penman (16.30), followed by a Q&A with director Padraig Trehy and a screening of Medicated Milk (18.40) followed by a Q&A with director Áine Stapleton and collaborator José Miguel Jiménez. Throughout the month of June, there will also be free screenings of Joycean films from the IFI Irish Film Archive with an introduction by Dr Sam Slote, Joycean Scholar and Associate Professor of English in Trinity College, Dublin to the Archive at Lunchtime Double Bill on Saturday, June 25th(13.00).

Shem the Penman Sings Again is a new exploration of the actual and much-fabled friendship between Joyce and Irish tenor, John McCormack. McCormack inspires the character of Shaun the Post in Joyce’s famously ‘unreadable’ final novel Finnegans Wake, in which Joyce portrayed himself as Shaun’s lowly twin brother, Shem. Following the screening at 16.30 director Padraig Trehy will participate in a post-screening Q&A.

Medicated Milk, directed by Áine Stapleton and in collaboration with José Miguel Jiménez, is a portrait of James Joyce’s daughter, Lucia Joyce. Lucia was a talented dancer, writer and musician who spent her life under the control of her father, her family and multiple doctors. Her time in Ireland during the 1930s – particularly in Bray, Co. Wicklow – was one of her few moments of freedom. The film deftly interweaves Lucia’s story with the filmmaker’s own to explore accounts of loss and trauma spanning over 100 years. Following the screening at 18.40, Áine Stapleton and José Miguel Jiménez will participate in a Q&A.

This month’s free lunchtime screenings from the IFI Irish Film Archive have a dual focus on Joyce and Shakespeare. The programme, Shakespeare and Company, is in keeping with the Bloomsday celebrations with screenings of Amharc Éireann, a look at the opening of the Joyce Tower in Sandycove with Sylvia Beach of Shakespeare and Company, publisher of Ulysses; Ulys, Tim Booth’s animated potted Ulysses; Eamon Morrissey’s Joycemen and Faithful Departed, Kieran Hickey’s portrait of Dublin on June 16th 1904. On Saturday June 25th at 13.00, Dr. Sam Slote, Joycean Scholar and Associate Professor of English in Trinity College, Dublin, will explore Joyce’s relationship with the work of William Shakespeare in an introduction to the Archive at Lunchtime Double Bill.

Director Pádraig Trehy lectures in film at CIT Crawford College of Art & Design, in Cork. He has been making shorts and documentaries for the past 15 years, many of them centering on the creative process, such as his acclaimed film about the Sultans of Ping, Trying to Sell Your Soul, When the Devil Won’t Listen (2003). His most recent documentary is Seamus Murphy: A Quiet Revolution (CCTV/BAI, 2014) which chronicles the life and work of the renowned Cork sculptor.

Director Áine Stapleton works in dance, film and music. She has a 1st Class Honours Degree in Dance Studies from the University of Surrey, London. She is co-director of Fitzgerald & Stapleton Dance Theatre with dance artist Emma Fitzgerald. Áine is also a member of the band Everything Shook who were listed in The Irish Times Best Irish Acts 2014. She is currently creating a multimedia production Fist Pump in collaboration with new Irish performance company RAK, which will premiere in late 2016.

José Miguel Jiménez studied theatre in Universidad de Chile for four years, after which he became founding member of two theatre companies currently active in Santiago. In 2004, he moved to Ireland and completed a Bachelors in Acting Studies from Trinity College. He formed The Company theatre company in Ireland. In 2009 his debut Who is Fergus Kilpatrick? won the Spirit of the Fringe award. His second show with The Company entitled As You Are Now, So Once Were We, based on James Joyce’s Ulysses, received the Best Production award as part of Absolut Fringe Festival 2010. Jose Miguel is part of Project Catalyst, an initiative of the Project Arts Centre.

Dr. Sam Slote is an Associate Professor and Director of Research at Trinity College, Dublin. He is a published Joycean scholar who has co-edited five volumes on Joyce:Probes: Genetic Studies in Joyce (1995); Genitricksling Joyce (1999); How Joyce Wrote Finnegans Wake (2007); Renascent Joyce (2013); and Derrida and Joyce: On Totality and Equivocation (2013). Since 1999 he has been one of five contributing editors for the ongoing ‘Finnegans Wake’ Notebooks at Buffalo series.

Tickets for these screenings are available now at or at the IFI Box Office on 01 679 3477. IFI Archive at Lunchtime screenings are free but ticketed.